Current trends and epidemiology on novel covid-19: Pandemic

Manoj Kumar Katual, Gurfateh Singh, S L Harikumar


The novel SARS-CoV-2 corona virus that emerged in the city of Wuhan, China, in 2019 and has since caused a large scale COVID-19 epidemic and spread to more than 190 other countries is the product of natural evolution, according to findings published today in the journal Nature Medicine. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause illnesses ranging widely in severity. The first known severe illness caused by a coronavirus emerged with the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemic in China. A second outbreak of severe illness began in 2012 in Saudi Arabia with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). On December 31 of last year, Chinese authorities alerted the World Health Organization of an outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus causing severe illness, which was subsequently named SARS-CoV-2. As of February 20, 2020, nearly 167,500 COVID-19 cases have been documented, although many more mild cases have likely gone undiagnosed. The virus has killed over 6,600 people. Shortly after the epidemic began, Chinese scientists sequenced the genome of SARS-CoV-2 and made the data available to researchers worldwide. The resulting genomic sequence data has shown that Chinese authorities rapidly detected the epidemic and that the number of COVID-19 cases have been increasing because of human to human transmission after a single introduction into the human population. Andersen and collaborators at several other research institutions used this sequencing data to explore the origins and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 by focusing in on several tell-tale feature.


Keywords: COVID-19, Severe acute respiratory syndrome.

Full Text:



World Health Organization. Director-General's remarks at the media briefing on 2019-nCoV on 11 February 2020.

World Health Organization. Novel coronavirus situation report-2. January 22, 2020. sitrep-2-2019-ncov.pdf.

Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P. Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:970.17.

Kupferschmidt K. Study claiming new coronavirus can be transmitted by people without symptoms was flawed. Science. February 3, 2020.

Bai Y, Yao L, Wei T. Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA. 2020.

Li Z, Yi Y, Luo X, Xong N, Liu Y, Li S, et al. Development and clinical application of a rapid IgM-IgG combined antibody test for SARS-CoV-2 Infection diagnosis. J Med Virol. 2020.

Centers for disease control and prevention. interim clinical guidance for management of patients with confirmed 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infection, February 12, 2020.

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020.

Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020;395:514.

Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2020.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395:497.

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020; 395:507.

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases

Xia W, Shao J, Guo Y, Peng X, Li Z, Hu D. Clinical and CT features in pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection: Different points from adults. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2020. doi: 10.1002/ppul.24718. an-surveillance-human infection-


Vital Surveillances: The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) -China, 2020. infection novel - coronavirus-2019-ncov an-surveillance-human infection- novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov Development and Clinical Application of A Rapid IgM_IgG Combined Antibody Test for SARS_CoV_2 Infection Diagnosis of radiologists in differentiating COVID-19 from viral pneumonia on chest CT.

Bouadma L, Lescure FX, Lucet JC, Yazdanpanah Y, Francois J. Severe SARS-CoV-2 infections: practical considerations and management strategy for intensivists. Timsit.

Arabi YM, Asiri AY. Treatment of Middle East respiratory syndrome with a combination of lopinavir/ ritona vir and interferon-_1b (MIRACLE trial): statistical analysis plan for a recursive two stage group sequential randomized controlled trial.

Arabi YM, Shalhoub S, Mandourah Y, Al-Hameed F, Al-Omari A, Al Qasim E. Ribavirin and interferon therapy for critically ill patients with middle east respiratory syndrome: A multicenter observational study. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;70(9):1837-44.

Moskowitz A, Yankama T, Andersen LW, Huang DT, Donnino MW, Grossestreuer AV, et al. Ascorbic Acid, Corticosteroids and Thiamine in Sepsis (ACTS) protocol and statistical analysis plan: a prospective, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. BMJ Open. 2019;9(12):e034406.

Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X1, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 2020;30(3):269-71. coronavirus-(2019-ncov).

Radonovich LJ, Simberkoff MS. Bessesen MT. N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza among health care personnel a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019;322(9):824-33.

Loeb M, Dafoe N, Mahony J, John M, Sarabia A, Glavin V, et al. Surgical Mask vs N95 respirator for preventing influenza among health care workers– A randomized trial. JAMA. 2009;302(17):1865-71.

MacIntyre CR. Cauchemez S, Dwyer DE, Seale H, Cheung P, Browne G, et al. Face Mask Use and Control of Respiratory Virus Transmission in Households. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(2):233–41.

Bryant PA, Trinder J, Curtis N. Sick and tired: does sleep have a vital role in the immune system?.

Nat Rev Immunol. 2004;4(6):457-67.

Exercise and the Immune System – Brolinson (2007).

Kampfa G. Persistence of corona viruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents.

Guan W, Ni Z. Yu Hu, Liang W, Ou C, He J, Liu L. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020;382;18.

Guan W, Ni Z, Yu Hu, Liang W, Ou C, He J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. Novel Coronavirus Infection in Hospitalized. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1708-20.

Infants Under 1 Year of Age in China. JAMA. 2020 Feb 14. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2131.

Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(10):929-36.

Hoehl S, Rabenau H. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Returning Travelers from Wuhan, China. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1278-80.

Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect. 2020;104(3):246-51.

Wahidi MM, Lamb C, Murgu S, Musani A, Shojaee S, Sachdeva A, et al. American Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology (AABIP) statement on the use of bronchoscopy and respiratory specimen collection in patients with suspected or confirmed covid-19 Infection. J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol. 2020 Mar 18. doi: 10.1097/LBR.0000000000000681.

Vitalograph: Hygiene Considerat ions for Spirometry. First published in Primary Care Today. 2011. pp. 1–3. Available from

Rasam SA, Apte KK, Salvi SS. Infection control in the pulmonary function test laboratory. Lung India. 2015;32(4):359-66.

1-Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032.

National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China. Diagnosis and treatment plan of novel coronavirus pneumonia (Version-7) (2020-03-04). /yzygj/s7653p/202003/46c9294 a7dfe4cef80dc7f5912eb1989.shtml.

Ma HJ, Shao JB, Wang YJ. High resolution CT features of novel coronavirus pneumonia in children. Chin J Radiol. 2020;54. DOI: 10.3760/c ma.j.issn.1005-1201.2020.0002

Sztrymf B, Messika J, Mayot T, Lenglet H, Dreyfuss D, Ricard JD. Impact of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy on intensive care unit patients with acute respiratory failure: A prospective observational study. J Crit Care. 2012;27:324:e9-13.

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network. Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:2564-75.

Dellinger RP. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:296-27.

Papazian L, Forel JM, Gacouin A. Neuromuscular blockers in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:1107-16.

Sud S, Friedrich JO, Taccone P. Prone ventilation reduces mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure and severe hypoxemia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36: 585-99.

Beckman S, Materna B, Goldmacher S, Zipprich J, D’Alessandro M, Novak D. Evaluation of respiratory protection programs and practices in California hospitals during the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41(11):1024-31.

Janssen L, Zhuang Z, Shaffer R. Criteria for the collection of useful respirator performance data in the workplace. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2014;11(4):218-26.

Janssen LL, Nelson TJ, Cuta KT. Workplace protection factors for an N95 filtering facepiece respirator. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007;4(9):698-707.

Ong SWX, Tan YK, Chia PY, Lee TH, Ng OT, Wong MSY, Marimuthu K. Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient. JAMA. 2020. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.3227

Guidelines on use of masks for health care workers, patients and members of public. Ministry of health and family welfare. Government of India.

Kanne JP, Little BP, Chung JH, Elicker BM, Ketai LH. Essentials for Radiologists on COVID-19: An update-radiology scientific expert panel. Radiol. 2020;200527.

Pan F, Ye T, Sun P, Gui S, Liang B, Li L, et al. Time course of lung changes on chest CT during recovery from 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia. Radiol. 2020;77(8):1-15.

Shi H, Han X, Jiang N, Cao Y, Alwalid O, Gu J, et al. Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;3099(20):1-10.

Buonsenso D, Piano A, Raffaelli F, Bonadia N. Point-of-care lung ultrasound findings in novel coronavirus disease-19 pnemoniae: a case report and potential applications during COVID-19 outbreak. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020; 24:2776–80.

Peng QY, Wang XT, Zhang LN. Critical C, Ultrasound C, Group S. Findings of lung ultra sonography of novel corona virus pneumonia during the 2019–2020 epidemic. Intensive Care Med. 2020;(87):6-7.


  • There are currently no refbacks.